Posts Tagged ‘Georgetown Home Inspector’

Backflow Prevention

Backflow Prevention

by Nick Gromicko and Kenton Shepard
Backflow is the reversal of the normal and intended direction of water flow in a water system. Devices and assemblies known as backflow preventers are installed to prevent backflow, which can contaminate potable water supplies.
 
Why is backflow a problem?

Backflow is a potential problem in a water system because it can spread contaminated water back through a distribution system. For example, backflow at uncontrolled cross connections (cross-connections are any actual or potential connection between the public water supply and a source of contamination or pollution) can allow pollutants or contaminants to enter the potable water system. Sickness can result from ingesting water that has been contaminated due to backflow.

Backflow may occur under the following two conditions:

back-pressure:
Back-pressure is the reverse from normal flow direction within a piping system as the result of the downstream pressure being higher than the supply pressure. This reduction in supply pressure occurs whenever the amount of water being used exceeds the amount of water being supplied (such as during water-line flushing, fire-fighting, or breaks in water mains).

back-siphonage:

Back-siphonage is the reverse from normal flow direction within a piping system that is caused by negative pressure in the supply piping (i.e., the reversal of normal flow in a system caused by a vacuum or partial vacuum within the water supply piping). Back-siphonage can occur when there is a high velocity in a pipe line, when there is a line repair or break that is lower than a service point, or when there is lowered main pressure due to high-water withdrawal rate (such as during fire-fighting or water-main flushing).
Atmospheric Vacuum Breakers

Backflow prevention for residences is most commonly accomplished through the use of atmospheric vacuum breakers (AVBs). AVBs operate by allowing the entry of air into a pipe so that a siphon cannot form. AVBs are bent at 90 degrees and are usually composed of brass. Compared with backflow preventer assembles, AVBs are small, simple and inexpensive devices that require little maintenance or testing. They have long life spans and are suitable for residential purposes such as sprinkler systems. InterNACHI inspectors can check for the following:

  • The AVB must be at least 6 inches above any higher point downstream of the device. For this reason, they can never be installed below grade. Even if they are installed 6 inches above grade, inspectors should make sure that they are not installed less than 6 inches above some other point in the system downstream of the device.
  • The AVB cannot be installed in an enclosure containing air contaminants. If contaminated air enters the water piping, it can poison the potable water supply.
  • A shut-off valve should never be placed downstream of any AVB, as this would result in continuous pressure on the AVB.
  • AVBs cannot be subject to continuous pressure for 12 hours in any 24-hour period or they may malfunction.
  • Spillage of water from the top of the AVB is an indication that the device has failed and needs to be replaced.

 

Types of Backflow Preventer Assemblies

Some types of assemblies are common in commercial and agricultural applications but are rare for residential uses. The appropriate type of backflow preventer for any given application will depend on the degree of potential hazard. The primary types of backflow preventers appropriate for use at municipalities and utilities are:

  • double check valves:  These are commonly used in elevated tanks and non-toxic boilers. Double check-valve assemblies are effective against backflow caused by back-pressure and back-siphonage and are used to protect the potable water system from low-hazard substances. Double-checks consist of two positive-seating check valves installed as a unit between two tightly closing shut-off valves, and are fitted with testcocks.
  • reduced pressure principle assemblies:  These are commonly used in industrial plants, hospitals, morgues, chemical plants, irrigation systems, boilers, and fire sprinkler systems. Reduced pressure principle assemblies (RPs) protect against back-pressure and back-siphonage of pollutants and contaminants. The assembly is comprised of two internally loaded, independently operating check valves with a mechanically independent, hydraulically dependent relief valve between them.
  • pressure vacuum breakers:  These are commonly used in industrial plants, cooling towers, laboratories, laundries, swimming pools, lawn sprinkler systems, and fire sprinkler systems. Pressure vacuum breakers use a check valve designed to close with the aid of a spring when water flow stops. Its air-inlet valve opens when the internal pressure is one psi above atmospheric pressure, preventing non-potable water from being siphoned back into the potable system. The assembly includes resilient, seated shut-off valves and testcocks.
Requirements for Testers and Inspectors

A number of organizations, such as the American Water Works Association (AWWA) and the American Backflow Prevention Association (ABPA) offer certification courses designed to train professionals to test backflow preventers. Requirements for training vary by jurisdiction. Inspection of backflow preventers requires knowledge of installation requirements, although inspectors are not required to become certified.
In summary, backflow preventers are designed to prevent the reverse flow of water in a potable water system. They come in a number of different types, each of which is suited for different purposes.
Charles Schiller Professional Inspector TREC #2717

How AFCI Breakers Function and Purpose

Arc-Fault Circuit Interrupters (AFCIs)

by Nick Gromicko and Kenton Shepard
Arc-fault circuit interrupters (AFCIs) are special types of electrical receptacles or outlets and circuit breakers designed to detect and respond to potentially dangerous electrical arcs in home branch wiring.
How do they work?
 
AFCIs function by monitoring the electrical waveform and promptly opening (interrupting) the circuit they serve if they detect changes in the wave pattern that are characteristic of a dangerous arc. They also must be capable of distinguishing safe, normal arcs, such as those created when a switch is turned on or a plug is pulled from a receptacle, from arcs that can cause fires. An AFCI can detect, recognize, and respond to very small changes in wave pattern.
What is an arc?
 
When an electric current crosses an air gap from an energized component to a grounded component, it produces a glowing plasma discharge known as an arc. For example, a bolt of lightening is a very large, powerful arc that crosses an atmospheric gap from an electrically charged cloud to the ground or another cloud. Just as lightning can cause fires, arcs produced by domestic wiring are capable of producing high levels of heat that can ignite their surroundings and lead to structure fires.
According to statistics from the National Fire Protection Agency for the year 2005, electrical fires damaged approximately 20,900 homes, killed 500 people, and cost $862 million in property damage. Although short-circuits and overloads account for many of these fires, arcs are responsible for the majority and are undetectable by traditional (non-AFCI) circuit breakers.
Where are arcs likely to form?
 
Arcs can form where wires are improperly installed or when insulation becomes damaged. In older homes, wire insulation tends to crystallize as it ages, becoming brittle and prone to cracking and chipping. Damaged insulation exposes the current-carrying wire to its surroundings, increasing the chances that an arc may occur.
Situations in which arcs may be created:

  • electrical cords damaged by vacuum cleaners or trapped beneath furniture or doors.
  • damage to wire insulation from nails or screws driven through walls.
  • appliance cords damaged by heat, natural aging, kinking, impact or over-extension.
  • spillage of liquid.
  • loose connections in outlets, switches and light fixtures.
Where are AFCIs required?
 
Locations in which AFCIs are required depend on the building codes adopted by their jurisdiction.
The 2006 International Residential Code (IRC) requires that AFCIs be installed within bedrooms in the following manner:

E3802.12 Arc-Fault Protection of Bedroom Outlets. All branch circuits that supply120-volt, single-phase, 15- and 20-amp outlets installed in bedrooms shall be protected by a combination-type or branch/feeder-type arc-fault circuit interrupter installed to provide protection of the entire branch circuit.

Exception: The location of the arc-fault circuit interrupter shall be permitted to be at other than the origination of the branch circuit, provided that:
  1. The arc-fault circuit interrupter is installed within 6 feet of the branch circuit overcurrent device as measured along the branch circuit conductors, and
  2. The circuit conductors between the branch circuit overcurrent device and the arc-fault circuit interrupter are installed in a metal raceway or a cable with metallic sheath.
The National Electrical Code (NEC) offers the following guidelines concerning AFCI placement within bedrooms:
Dwelling Units. All 120-volt, single phase, 15- and 20-ampere branch circuits supplying outlets installed in dwelling unit in family rooms, dining rooms, living rooms, parlors, libraries, dens, sun rooms, recreation rooms, closets, hallways, or similar rooms or areas shall be protected by a listed arc-fault circuit interrupter, combination-type installed to provide protection of the branch circuit.
Home inspectors should refrain from quoting exact code in their reports. A plaintiff’s attorney might suggest that code quotation means that the inspector was performing a code inspection and is therefore responsible for identifying all code violations in the home.  Some jurisdictions do not yet require their implementation in locations where they can be helpful.
What types of AFCIs are available?
AFCIs are available as circuit breakers for installation in the electrical distribution panel.

Nuisance Tripping

An AFCI might activate in situations that are not dangerous and create needless power shortages. This can be particularly annoying when an AFCI stalls power to a freezer or refrigerator, allowing its contents to spoil. There are a few procedures an electrical contractor can perform in order to reduce potential “nuisance tripping,” such as:
  • Check that the load power wire, panel neutral wire and load neutral wire are properly connected.
  • Check wiring to ensure that there are no shared neutral connections.
  • Check the junction box and fixture connections to ensure that the neutral conductor does not contact a grounded conductor.
Arc Faults vs. Ground Faults
 
It is important to distinguish AFCI devices from Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter (GFCI) devices. GFCIs detect ground faults, which occur when current leaks from a hot (ungrounded) conductor to a grounded object as a result of a short-circuit. This situation can be hazardous when a person unintentionally becomes the current’s path to the ground. GFCIs function by constantly monitoring the current flow between hot and neutral (grounding) conductors, and activate when they sense a difference of 5 milliamps or more. Thus, GFCIs are intended to prevent personal injury due to electric shock, while AFCIs prevent personal injury and property damage due to structure fires.
In summary, AFCIs are designed to detect small arcs of electricity before they have a chance to lead to a structure fire.
NOTE: Changes to the 2014 NEC have added new locations for AFCI’s.
Charles Schiller Professional Inspector TREC #2717

Preparing for a Home Inspection

 Preparing for a Home Inspection

 

If you are selling your house, here are some ways to make your home inspection go smoother, with fewer concerns to delay closing.

  1. Make sure the inspector has access, not only to the house, but also to the furnace, water heater and air- conditioning units (especially in closets, attics and crawlspaces).
  2. Remove items blocking access to HVAC equipment, electric service, panels, water heaters, etc.
  3. Check to see that the garage is open and that any water heater, utility panel and shutoffs and resets for ground-fault circuit interrupters (GFCIs) within are accessible.
  4. Unlock areas the inspector must access, such as attic doors or hatches, electric service panels, closets, fence gates and crawlspaces.
  5. Ensure that all utility services are on, with gas pilot lights burning.
  6. Be sure pets won’t hinder the inspection. Ideally, they should be removed from the premises or secured outside. Tell your agent about any pets at home.
  7. Replace burned-out bulbs to avoid a “light did not operate” report that may suggest an electrical problem.
  8. Remove stored items, debris and wood from the foundation. These may be cited as conditions conducive to wood-destroying insects.
  9. Trim tree limbs to 10 feet from the roof and shrubs to 1 foot from the house to allow access.
  10. Attend to broken or missing items such as doorknobs, locks and latches, windowpanes, screens and locks, and gutters, downspouts and chimney caps.

 

Checking these areas before your home inspection is an investment in selling your property, and will expedite your closing.

Charles Schiller Professional Home Inspector TREC #2717 512-639-9905

 

 

Test Smoke and Carbon Monoxide Detectors During Winter Season

During the winter months with the use of fireplaces, candles and extension cords used for Christmas lights remember to test your smoke and carbon monoxide detectors. With the added use of these heating and lighting devices these can put added stress on electrical and heating equipment  which could cause fires and/or deplete the oxygen from living and sleeping areas. Be safe this Holiday Season by taking action now to test these safety devices. Have a very Merry Christmas and a Happy and Blessed New Year.

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Test smoke detectors

How Much Should You Worry About Asbestos in the Home?

Great article to share about asbestos in homes. Highlight the link below to go to the article about Asbestos in the Home.

http://www.energyvanguard.com/blog-building-science-HERS-BPI/bid/77014/how-much-should-you-worry-about-asbestos-in-the-home?source=Blog_Email_[How%20Much%20Should%20You%20]

Schedule you home inpections today email your name, phone #, and address of the home you are buying to schedule your inspection today.

Gateway Inspections Inc

“Protecting Home Buyers For Over Twenty Years”

Home Inspector Does Radio Show

Charles Schiller President of Gateway Inspections Inc, a professional home inspection company licensed in Texas, is invited to talk about home inspections on the Hurdie Burke radio program.

We discuss things like issues found during home inspections, take a listen to the link below.

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Charles Schiller

Professional Inspector TREC #2717

 

Home Safety and GFCI Protected Outlets

Home Safety and GFCI Protected Outlets

 

As a licensed professional home inspector, I test electrical outlets every day during home inspections. Ground fault circuit interrupters or GFCI is an inexpensive electrical device that can either be installed in your electrical system or built into a power cord.

These devices are used to protect you from severe electrical shocks, burns and injuries by detecting ground faults.

A ground fault is an unintentional electrical path between a power source and a grounded surface.  Ground faults most often occur when equipment is damaged or defective, such that live electrical parts are no longer adequately protected from unintended contact. If your body provides a path to the ground for this current, you could be burned, severely shocked or electrocuted.

Areas that GFCI protection should be in or around all wet areas such as:

Pools, hot tubs, and receptacles that are located:

  • Outdoors
  • Bathrooms
  • Garages
  • Kitchens and island cabinets
  • Wet bars
  • Laundry rooms/utility sinks
  • Crawl spaces/basement
  • Near pools or spas

Consider using a GFCI protected cord if you are using power equipment outdoors.

GFCI’s can be damaged by voltage surges from lightning, utility switching or simply for normal usage and there may be no outward evidence or damage. If they are not working properly, they are not protecting you from shock or electrocution.

GFCI receptacles should be tested once a month it takes no special equipment or devices to test the plugs. To test a GFCI:

  1. Push the RESET button
  2. Plug in a night –light or similar device
  3. The night –light should be ON
  4. Press the TEST button
  5. The night-light should turn OFF
  6. Push the RESET button again
  7. The night- light should turn back ON
  8. If the night-light did not turn off, the GFCI is not working properly.

Malfunctioning GFCI’s do not provide shock protection. I recommend having a licensed electrician check the GFCI and correct the problem if your GFCI is not working.

Many home injuries can be avoided each year by using and testing these devices.

Charles Schiller is a licensed professional home inspector in Texas TREC #2717 For over twenty four years and president of Gateway Inspections Inc.  512-639-9905 email: schillercharles@gmail.com  For additional inspection articles and videos go to: http://www.roundrockhomeinspector.com Follow on Facebook at: https://www.facebook.com/GatewayInspectionsInc

Toilet Flapper Issues Home Inspector

http://www.RoundRockHomeInspector.com Round Rock Home Inspector inspects toilets to make sure they are functioning properly. Flapper valves can allow for water to leak past and cost you the home buyer money in unnecessary water usage.

So don’t delay schedule your home inspection today at: http://www.georgetowntxhomeinspector.com/quote/all/ for a quote on your home inspection.

I’ve been protecting home buyers, just like you, from getting stuck with those unexpected post closing expenses. Gateway Inspections Inc Protecting home buyers for 20 years.

Charles Schiller
Professional Inspector TREC #2717
Gateway Inspections Inc
512-639-9905

EIF System Not Sealed Home Inspection

http://www.RoundRockHomeInspector.com Round Rock Home Inspector inspects the exterior of homes to looks for any areas that would allow for water penetration into the wall cavity.

Don’t get stuck with those unexpected post closing expenses, schedule your home inspection today at: http://www.georgetowntxhomeinspector.com/quote/all/ and get a free quote.

Charles Schiller
Professional Inspector TREC #2717
Gateway Inspections Inc
512-639-9905

Dryer Vent Next to HVAC Home Inspection

http://www.RoundRockHomeInspector.com The Round Rock Home Inspector inspects for proper location of dryer vents. Vents should not be installed near an a/c condensor. The dryer lint can be pulled into the cooling coil and restrict the air flow. Over time this will affect performance of HVAC unit and cost you money.

Round Rock Home Inspector has been Protecting Home Buyers for 20 years, protecting them from getting stuch with unexspected post closing expenses. So don’t delay schedule your home inspection today at: http://www.georgetowntxhomeinspector.com/quote/all/ and get a free quote.

Charles Schiller
Professional Inspector TREC #2717
Gateway Inspections Inc
512-639-9905